Category Archives: Uncategorized

Intro to Mobile Virtual Reality

Continuum from Reality to Virtual Reality

Figure 1: (Fitzgerald et al., 2013, p44)

The development of VR in education: From the fringe to the mainstream

Second Life
  • Interest in education peaked 2008-2009 e.g. (Warburton, 2009)
  • Continued niche interest
Game development
Google Cardboard (2014)

360 Panoramas
  • QTVR Studio (1994)
  • Google Maps (2005)
  • Google Street View (2007)
  • Google Street View Mobile App integrates Google Cardboard (2015)
  • Example Google Street View Photo spheres
360 Videos
Apple – bought Metaio 2015

Virtual Tours (2013)
Google Tour Builder
Tour builder integrates Google Maps, Google Earth, Google Photos and YouTube videos,
allowing you to create an interactive virtual tour or event guide.
VR and Journalism (2015)
NY Times launches VR App
Amer, A., & Peralez, P. (2014). Affordable altered perspectives: Making augmented and virtual reality technology accessible. Paper presented at the Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC), 2014 IEEE.
Bruns, A. (2008). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.
Chen, S. E. (1995). Quicktime VR: An image-based approach to virtual environment navigation. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques.
Cochrane, T. (2007). Developing interactive multimedia Learning Objects using QuickTime. [Journal]. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(6), 2596-2640.
FitzGerald, E., Ferguson, R., Adams, A., Gaved, M., Mor, Y., & Thomas, R. (2013). Augmented reality and mobile learning: the state of the art. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 5(4), 43-58.
Hussein, M., & Natterdal, C. (2015). The benefits of virtual reality in education: A comparison study. Unpublished Student essay, Chlamers University of Technology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
Merchant, Z., Goetz, E. T., Cifuentes, L., Keeney-Kennicutt, W., & Davis, T. J. (2014). Effectiveness of virtual reality-based instruction on students’ learning outcomes in K-12 and higher education: A meta-analysis. Computers & Education, 70, 29-40.
Maggi Savin-Baden (2013): Spaces in between us: a qualitative study into the impact of spatial practice when learning in Second Life , London Review of Education, 11:1, 59-75
Warburton, S. (2009). Second Life in higher education: Assessing the potential for and the barriers to deploying virtual worlds in learning and teaching. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(3), 414-426.

Exploring IFTTT and Evernote for blogging

If This Then That has just added some triggers for Evernote that can be used to automate blog posts from either creating a new Evernote in a notebook, or from adding specific tags to Evernotes. This sounds great to me as my blogging activity has been somewhat minimal lately – while my use of Evernote for constructing ideas and Twitter for sharing ideas and resources has grown – I just don’t feel the urge to blog like I used to! So linking the three platforms via IFTTT may provide a way of feeding my blogs with some notes that I just don’t seem to get time to blog could be useful in sharing these ideas to wider communities. This is first example of using IFTTT and a specific ‘Blogit’ tag with Evernote.

Dusting off my contextual statement for #mosomelt

As part of our #mosomelt cMOOC we have asked participants to write a contextual statement that they can use for their CMALT portfolio – so I thought I’d dust off one of my own…

My Contextual Statement:

The prime driver behind my research into the scholarship of technology enhanced learning or SOTEL (Wickens, 2006) is my own experience of developing as a tertiary lecturer. In my observations as an academic advisor, reflective teachers develop their own synthesis of various pedagogical models, choosing the aspects that align with their own learning and teaching style, and their ever developing understanding of the learning environment. This comes from reflecting upon teaching experiences, and aligning these with current learning theory (Brookfield, 1995, Larrivee, 2000). There have been several key influences in the development of my pedagogical outlook:

1. Constructive learning theory (Bruner, 1966, Weimer, 2002, Wadsworth, 1996)
2. Constructive alignment (Biggs, 2003)
3. Diana Laurillard’s Conversational Framework (Laurillard, 2001)
4. Social Constructivism in its many emergent forms (Herrington and Herrington, 2006a, McLoughlin and Lee, 2008b)
5. Communities of Practice (Wenger et al., 2005)
6. The concept of the Pedagogy-Andragogy-Heutagogy Continuum and student-determined learning (Luckin et al., 2010).
7. The SAMR framework of educational technology adoption (Puentedura, 2006).

These have resonated with my personal experiences of teaching and learning, and from these I have developed a synthesis that I have successfully used in teaching, in particular in utilizing technology to enhance the learning environment for myself and my students. My experience of establishing a wireless laptop scheme for students in my previous role of Audio Engineering and Music Production lecturer (Cochrane, 2003, Webster, 2004) convinced me of the transformative impact of mlearning in education. My experience of multimedia learning object development for my Masters Thesis also convinced me of the limitations of multimedia content delivery with its reliance upon specialised developer skills (Cochrane, 2005, Cochrane, 2007). Therefore I favour a student-centred, interactive, collaborative approach to developing a unique learning community for each different group of learners, enhanced by collaborative communications made available by technology. Wireless mobile computing and social software have matured into useful tools to facilitate this approach to learning communities within mainstream tertiary education, creating a foundation for student-generated content and student-generated contexts.
However this is not the norm in tertiary education, as Herrington and Herrington (2006b) observe, behaviourism and content transmission are still the dominant paradigms, which is supported by my own observations in 2010. Good pedagogy, as defined by Dewald (1999) focuses upon enhancing the student experience and the desired graduate profiles. Graduate profiles include student capabilities and how they will be expected to engage in the workforce community (Allen Consulting Group, 2004). Today’s graduates need to be life-long learners, and capable of critical, reflective, and creative thinking, able to work in and contribute to teams (Hager and Holland, 2006). Behaviourism focuses upon teacher-centred approaches in higher education (Dewald, 1999, Ally, 2008, Brown, 2006), whereas social constructivism focuses upon learner-centred approaches that model and facilitate the type of graduate profiles described above (Bruns, 2007, McLoughlin and Lee, 2008b). For example, Herrington and Herrington (2006b) critique the predominant behaviourist, knowledge-transmission pedagogies found in higher education, and present authentic learning as an alternative:
Typically university education has been a place to learn theoretical knowledge devoid of context… What employers, governments and nations require are graduates that display attributes necessary for knowledge building communities: graduates who can create, innovate, and communicate in their chosen profession. (Herrington and Herrington, 2006b)

I have been driven by a desire to bring about positive pedagogical change, informed by this research, in the areas of: professional development for lecturers to utilize and integrate mobile web 2.0 tools into their curricula to facilitate flexible social constructivist learning environments for their students, and facilitating the changes in institutional strategy and wireless infrastructure required to facilitate a student-owned wireless mobile device model of computing. Several factors have contributed to make this a possibility: the roll-out of almost ubiquitous wireless connectivity via wifi and 4G broadband, the maturing of smartphones into powerful mobile multimedia computers with unique affordances to augment how we conceptualise and interact with the world around us, the rapid development of mobile web 2.0, and the conceptualisation of new social constructivist pedagogies such as authentic learning (Herrington and Herrington, 2006a, Herrington and Oliver, 2000), pedagogy 2.0 (McLoughlin and Lee, 2008a, McLoughlin and Lee, 2010), connectivism (Siemens, 2004) and navigationism (Brown, 2005, Brown, 2006).

In summary I view mlearning as a catalyst of pedagogical change that can be leveraged by lecturers modeling the pedagogical use of mobile web 2.0 tools for facilitating reflective reconception of teaching and learning, moving from teacher-directed pedagogy to learner-generated content and learner-generated contexts.


Allen Consulting Group 2004. Development of a strategy to support the universal recognition and recording of employability skills: a skills portfolio approach – final report. Canberra: Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST).
Ally, M. 2008. Foundations of educational theory for online learning. In: Anderson, T. (ed.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Second Edition ed. Edmonton: AU Press, Athabasca University.
Biggs, J. 2003. Teaching for Quality Learning at University, Buckingham, The Society for Research into Higher Education.
Brookfield, S. 1995. Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Inc.
Brown, T. 2005. Beyond Constructivism: Exploring future learning paradigms. Education Today [Online]. Available:
Brown, T. 2006. Beyond constructivism: Navigationism in the knowledge era. On the Horizon, 14, 108-120.
Bruner, J. 1966. Toward a Theory of Instruction, Cambridge, Belknap Press of Harvard University.
Bruns, A. Beyond difference: reconfiguring education for the user-led age. ICE3: Ideas in cyberspace education: digital difference, March 21-23 2007 Ross Priory, Loch Lomond, Scotland. 1-11.
Cochrane, T. Creating an e-learning environment for a polytechnic course. eFest 2003, 2003 CPIT Christchurch. IAssociation of Polytechnics of New Zealand.
Cochrane, T. 2005. Interactive QuickTime: Developing and evaluating multimedia Learning Objects to enhance both face to face and distance e-learning environments. Inter Disciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects, 1, 32-54.
Cochrane, T. 2007. Developing interactive multimedia Learning Objects using QuickTime. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 2596-2640.
Dewald, N. 1999. Web-Based Library Instruction: What Is Good Pedagogy? (using the World Wide Web for education). Information Technology and Libraries, 18, 26-31.
Hager, P. & Holland, S. (eds.) 2006. Graduate attributes, learning and employability, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
Herrington, A. & Herrington, J. (eds.) 2006a. Authentic learning environments in higher education, Hershy: Information Science Publishing.
Herrington, A. & Herrington, J. 2006b. What is an Authentic Learning Environment? In: Herrington, A. & Herrington, J. (eds.) Authentic learning environments in higher education. Hershy: Information Science Publishing.
Herrington, J. & Oliver, R. 2000. An instructional design framework for authentic learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 48, 23-48.
Larrivee, B. 2000. Transforming Teaching Practice: becoming the critically reflective teacher. Reflective Practice, 1, 293-307.
Laurillard, D. 2001. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology, London, Routledge.
Luckin, R., Clark, W., Garnett, F., Whitworth, A., Akass, J., Cook, J., Day, P., Ecclesfield, N., Hamilton, T. & Robertson, J. 2010. Learner-Generated Contexts: A Framework to Support the Effective Use of Technology for Learning. In: Lee, M. & Mcloughlin, C. (eds.) Web 2.0-Based E-Learning: Applying Social Informatics for Tertiary Teaching. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Mcloughlin, C. & Lee, M. 2008a. Future learning landscapes: Transforming pedagogy through social software. Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 4, 7.
Mcloughlin, C. & Lee, M. 2008b. Mapping the digital terrain: New media and social software as catalysts for pedagogical change. In: Farley, A. & Holt, D. (eds.) Proceedings of ASCILITE 2008. Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia: ascilite.
Mcloughlin, C. & Lee, M. 2010. Pedagogy 2.0: Critical challenges and responses to web 2.0 and social software in tertiary teaching. In: Lee, M. & Mcloughlin, C. (eds.) Web 2.0-Based E-Learning: Applying Social Informatics for Tertiary Teaching. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Puentedura, R. 2006. Transformation, Technology, and Education [Online]. Hippasus. Available: [Accessed 18 February 2013].
Siemens, G. 2004. Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age. eLearnspace [Online]. Available: [Accessed 31 December 2009].
Wadsworth, B. 1996. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development: an introduction for students of psychology and education, White Plains, David McKay.
Webster, M. 2004. MAINZ Macs. New Zealand MacGuide.
Weimer, M. 2002. Learner-Centered Teaching: Five Key Changes to Practice, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
Wenger, E., White, N., Smith, J. & Rowe, K. 2005. Technology for Communities. In: Langelier, L. (ed.) Working, Learning and Collaborating in a Network: Guide to the implementation and leadership of intentional communities of practice. Quebec City: CEFIRO.
Wickens, R. 2006. SoTEL: Toward a Scholarship of Technology Enhanced Learning. Canadian Journal of University Continuing Education 32, 21-41.

Mobile TV OnDemand #mosomelt #npf14lmd

nZ has finally entered the Television on demand age. We now have several Freeview and subscription based TV services and mobile Apps available. Most of the mobile Apps also support wireless mirroring to your large screen TV via either Airplay or DLNA, with the exceptions being the Freeview Apps. So far the options are:

  • TVNZ OnDemand, Freeview
  • TV3 OnDemand Freeview
  • Lightbox (Spark – ex Telecom) $15/month subscription service
  • Neontv (Sky) $20/month subscription service
  • NetFlix $10/month subscription service

Of these only Neontv and Netflix currently provide access to both TV shows and movies on demand. However Apple may enter this market soon, as they are rumoured to be launching their own service after years of unsuccessful negotiations with the encombants. In NZ we only have access to movie rentals via the AppleTV and iTunes Store, with some fairly substandard third party TV Apps available as well. Looking forward to some real OnDemand choices that don’t involve VPNs or other country specific gateway work arounds.


Launching the #mosomelt cMOOC

We are excited to be launching the inaugural #mosomelt cMOOC next week. The mobile social media learning technologies cMOOC will explore the impact and integration of mobile social media in higher education. It will also help prepare participants for cMALT accreditation. See more info and signup at



A summary of Twitter interactions throughout the EC-TEL2013 Conference in Cyprus

  1. Tack, Skål, Powerpoint @atz119 interesting presentation about innovation inpedagogy @thomcochrane @atz119
  2. #ectel2013 using mobile devices in Social Media as catalyst to think about teaching and learning differently @thomcochrane
  3. Tack, Skål, Powerpoint @atz119 interesting presentation about innovation inpedagogy @thomcochrane @atz119
  4. @johnnigelcook that title is CC-NC-BY. re teen spirit paper, nice to see @thomcochrane & @ATZ119 talk about learner generated contexts
  5. @johnnigelcook that title is CC-NC-BY. re teen spirit paper, nice to see @thomcochrane & @ATZ119 talk about learner generated contexts
  6. #ectel2013 making a cultural change in pedagogy through using mobile devices in MOPCOPs by @thomcochrane
  7. #ectel2013 using mobile devices in Social Media as catalyst to think about teaching and learning differently @thomcochrane
  8.… The Learning Design Studio #ectel2013
  9. my prezi “The Learning Design Studio: Educational Practice as Design Inquiry of Learning” #ectel2013
  10. We need to broker innovative pedagogical practice between contexts, a Community Of Practice model is one way to do this #ectel2013
  11. More innovative practices are more difficult to scale DOH #ectel2013 Need top down strategies for bottom up innovation, innovation organic
  12. Strong messages in all three keynotes at #ectel2013. More focus on teachers and pedagogy. Focus on existing tools and get close to practice!
  13. Hellerup School in Denmark… similar to Albany Senior High School in Auckland NZ #ectel2013
  14. #ectel2013 scale & sustainability about innovation and systemic change – reconceptualizing T & L a cultural change…
  15. Redesigning Prof Devt: reconceptualising teaching using social learning technologies @thomcochrane & @vnarayan #RLT
  16. Redesigning Prof Devt: reconceptualising teaching using social learning technologies @thomcochrane & @vnarayan #RLT
  17. Redesigning Prof Devt: reconceptualising teaching using social learning technologies @thomcochrane & @vnarayan #RLT
  18. #ectel2013 if we transferred the presentation skills from the demo sprints to the papers then they would be much more engaging
  19. @BergstrmPeter I expect a non PowerPoint presentation next time :-) #ectel2013 121 computing classroom…
  20. Confusing University brand with teaching quality Hence MOOC pedagogy is rubbish :-) #ectel2013 No evidence that Top researchers are teachers
  21. MOOC pass rates low and dropout high, also no cross credit towards formal qualifications #ectel2013…
  22. John Daniel’s article on MOOCs. A must read for all interested in understanding the paradox of the concept… #ectel2013
  23. xMOOCs have no relationship to Ivan Illich’s view of open education #ectel2013
  24. It’s not technology that creates a revolution, it’s how you use it – revolution comes from changing culture and new ideas #ectel2013
  25. St Paul one of the first distance educators in Cyprus via correspondence #ectel2013 St Paul wins the TEL Eurovision Competition!
  26. AUT University – Business School – Excellence in Business Support Awards 2013 @thomcochrane
  27. @thomcochrane thought you might appreciate/empathise with…
  28. Thank you for reading your PowerPoint slides to me #ectel2013
  29. @yishaym even Siri on my iPhone got bored – randomly asked “I’m not sure what you mean by that!” LOL
  30. Yawn, tell me about your project and its impact on learners rather than your research methodology – I can read that #ectel2013
  31. Eurovision competition for TEL #ectel2013 bring on Engelbert Humperdink :-)”
  32. @thomcochrane but then there’s an 11% acceptance rate for short papers… #ectwl2013
  33. 22% full paper acceptance – you are more likely to get bumped down to a short paper :-( #ectel2013
  34. #ectel2013 Digital Didaktik Designs for iPads blog
  35. #ectel2013 Digital Didaktik Designs in iPad Classrooms
  36. #ectel2013 brainstorming curriculum design projects with the French and Swedish connection @atz119 @IsaJa :-)…
  37. “@ATZ119: workshop sum up from @IsaJa @thomcochrane…#ECTEL2013 merging curiosity and curriculum driven learning
  38. OH @ #ectel2013 “I’m not from a creative industry, I’m a computer scientist”
  39. Very engaging discussion round creativity in the creativity workshop #ectel2013 We as the experts must model creative behaviour ourselves!
  40. Our #ectel2013 Creativity Workshop paper @thomcochrane @atz119… MSM for creative pedagogies
  41. “creative pedagogy” like! We use “digital didactical designs” similarities/diff? @thomcochrane our paper #ectel2013
  42. our paper for #ectel2013 @thomcochrane @atz119 MOPCOP Mobile Community Of Practice…
  43. @thomcochrane tx, I’m @ might join you after coffee / lunch
  44. our paper for #ectel2013 @thomcochrane @atz119 MOPCOP Mobile Community Of Practice…
  45. Our #ectel2013 Creativity Workshop paper @thomcochrane @atz119… MSM for creative pedagogies
  46. @thomcochrane is the creativity workshop today? which room? (I’m still a bit flight-shocked) #ectel2013
  47. #ectel2013 Creativity workshop – @thomcochrane @atz119 our presentation notes… MSM a catalyst for creative pedagogies

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